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Historic Marker Plaques

plaques

The Historic Marker Plaques of Glengarry

The Historic Marker Plaques of Glengarry select the item for the plaque text…

THE DYER BELL


**THE DYER BELL**
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The bell atop Dunvegan School (built 1886) was originally on the nearby Dyer School, from its construction about 1900 until the 1940s. It then spent more than half a century in western Canada, first in Saskatchewan, then in Vancouver, before being returned to the area and installed here by the Glengarry Historical Society in 2005.
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Erected by ….

DR. MAHLON W. LOCKE 1880 - 1942


**DR. MAHLON W. LOCKE 1880 – 1942**
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Born in nearby Matilda township, Locke studied medicine at Queen’s University in Scotland. In 1908 he opened his medical office in this house. Interested in arthritis, which he believed was caused principally by fallen arches, he treated many arthritics in the following years by manual manipulation of their feet. Large numbers of his patients claimed to be cured or relieved by this method and his reputation spread across North America and overseas. From 1928 onwards thousands of the sick visited Dr. Locke in Williamsburg where he reportedly treated hundreds of persons daily. During the depression years this enormous influx brought significant prosperity to the region.
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Erected by the Archealogical and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

THE REV. CHARLES W. GORDON 1860-1937


**THE REV. CHARLES W. GORDON 1860-1937**
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Born at Indian Lands (St. Elmo), Gordon was ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1890. He served as a missionary in the North West Territories until 1893 and the following year was called to St. Stephens in Winnipeg. A chaplain during the War of 1914-18, he was Moderator of the Presbyterian Church in Canada 1921-22. Under the pen name of Ralph Connor, Gordon became one of Canada’s leading authors and wrote such books as ‘The Man from Glengarry’, ‘The Sky Pilot’ and ‘Glengarry School Days’. The themes of many of his novels were drawn from his missionary experiences and boyhood memories of Glengarry.
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Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

THE PARISH OF ST. RAPHAEL

**THE PARISH OF ST. RAPHAEL**
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A mission of the Roman Catholic Highlanders of the Raisin River settlement was begun in 1786 by the Reverend Alexander Macdonell (Scotus) and later a small frame church, called the “Blue Chapel” was built. St. Raphael’s Parish was officially recognized in 1802. The existing stone church, a fine example of Canadian neo-classical design, was begun in 1821 by the Most Reverend Alexander Macdonell, who had been appointed to St. Raphael’s in 1804, made Vicar General of Upper Canada in 1807, and consecrated Bishop of Rhesina in 1820. From 1807 to 1826, when Macdonell became Bishop of Regiopolis (Kingston), St. Raphael’s was the administrative centre of the Church of Upper Canada.
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Erected by Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

ST. RAPHAEL'S RUINS - LES RUINES DE L'ÉGLISE ST. RAPHAEL


**ST. RAPHAEL’S RUINS – LES RUINES DE L’ÉGLISE ST. RAPHAEL**
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The extraordinary ruins of this church recall the early history of Roman Catholicism in Upper Canada. Begun in 1815, St. Raphael’s Church originally served as the centre of the colony’s largest and most important parish and the administrative headquarters of the first Roman Catholic Bishop, Alexander Macdonell. Situated in the heart of the historic Highland Settlement, the parish was the cradle of catholicism in Ontario. The ruins left standing after the fire of 1970 serve as a testament of Bishop Macdonell’s determined efforts to forward the interests of his faith.

Construite en 1817-1819 par des artisans montréalais pour John Macdonell et son épouse métisse, Magdeleine Poitras, cette demeure était l’une des plus belles érigées dans la région par d’anciens partenaires de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. Élégante adaptation du style palladien, elle s’élevait au milieu d’un vaste domaine en exploitation, près de la rivière et de l’entreprise de transit de Macdonell. La famille l’avait baptisée ‹‹Poplar Villa››. Ses impressionnants murs de pierre et son intérieur raffiné témoignaient de rang élevé que tenait Macdonell dans la société commerciale et politique de l’Outaouais.
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Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

THE GLENGARRY EMIGRATION OF 1786


**THE GLENGARRY EMIGRATION OF 1786**
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Early in September 1786, a group of some 500 Scottish Highlanders, the majority of whom were Macdonells, arrived at Quebec. They were led by their parish priest from Knoydart, Glengarry, the Reverend Alexander Macdonell (Scotus). Forced to emigrate because of their depressed economic conditions of the Highlands, they had been encouraged to come to Canada and settle among their fellow countrymen in what is now Glengarry County. Despite initial hardships, most of these Scottish pioneers settled successfully in this region, where their loyalty and military prowess were frequently demonstrated. Father Macdonell founded the parish of St. Rapael, one of the province’s earliest Roman Catholic congregations.
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Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

GLENGARRY CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 1837


**GLENGARRY CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 1837**
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This Log Structure completed in 1837, is the oldest remaining chapel in Ontario built by the Congregationalists. It’s first minister, the Reverend William McKillican (1776-1849), emmigrated to Canada from Scotland in 1816, and settled in Glengarry the following year. Here, in 1823, he established one of the earliest congregations of his denomination in Upper Canada and ministered througout the surrounding region, he was succeeded by his son John (1824-1911) who first preached in this chapel in 1850, and was ordained here the following year. During the next 60 years local attendance diminished, and by about 1912 the building fell into disuse. In 1920 it was sold to the near by Gordon Presbyterian Church.
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Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

CLAUDE J.P. NUNNEY, V.C. 1892 - 1918


**CLAUDE J.P. NUNNEY, V.C. 1892 – 1918**
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Born in Ireland, Nunney was brought up in Lancaster Township, Glengarry. He enlisted in the 38th Battalion, C.E.F. in 1915 and in 1916 was sent to France where he won the Military Medal and Distinguished Conduct Medal. On September 1, 1918, his unit was heavily counter-attacked near Vis-en-Artois. On his own initiative Private Nunney went through the German barrage to the forward posts, where, by his fearless example, he encouraged his companions to repulse the enemy. During the Canadain attack on the following day, he was continually in the forefront, and displayed throughout the highest degree of valour. Severely wounded, he died on September 18, and was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously.
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Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

JOHN SANDFIELD MACDONALD 1812 - 1872


**JOHN SANDFIELD MACDONALD 1812 – 1872**
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St. Raphael is the birthplace of John Sandfield Macdonald, Prime Minister of the Province of Canada 1862-64, and first Premier of Ontario 1867-71. First elected to represent Glengarry in the legislature of Canada in 1841, he became one of the leaders of the Reform party and served in several ministries prior to Confederation in 1867. Always independent in his political thinking, he at first opposed the federation of the provinces. Later he co-operated with Sir John A. Macdonald, chief architect of Confederation, at whose request he formed a coalition ministry in Ontario.
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Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

SIR JOHN JOHNSON’S MILLS


**SIR JOHN JOHNSON’S MILLS**
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Son of the celebrated Indian superintendent Sir William Johnson, Sir John was born in 1742 in New York’s Mohawk Valley. During the American Revolution his Loyalist sympathies brought him to Canada where he organized the King’s Royal Regiment of New York. After the Revolution he received extensive Crown-land grants in Glengarry County and elsewhere. He built a grist-mill and sawmill here on the Raisin River about 1790 and, on the bank opposite a manor-house. Appointed to the Legislative Council of Lower Canada in 1796, he died near Montreal in 1830.
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Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

CARIBOO CAMERON 1820 -1888


**CARIBOO CAMERON 1820 -1888**
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Born in this township, John Angus “Cariboo” Cameron married Margaret Sophia Groves in 1860. Accompanied by his wife and daughter, he went to British Columbia in 1862 to prospect in the Cariboo gold fields. That year at Williams Creek he struck a rich gold deposit. While there his wife died of typhoid fever and, in order to fulfil her dying wish to be buried at home, he transported her body in an alcohol-filled coffin some 8,600 miles by sea via the Isthmus of Panama to Cornwall. She is buried in the nearby Salem Church cemetery. Cameron built this house, “Fairfield”, in 1865, and in 1886 returned to the B.C. gold fields. He is buried near Barkerville, B.C.
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Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

THE MacMILLAN EMIGRATION 1802


**THE MacMILLAN EMIGRATION 1802**
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In September, 1802, over 400 Highland emigrants, including more than 100 MacMillans, arrived at Montreal under the leadership of Archibald McMillan (Murlaggan) on board the vessels “Friends”, “Helen” and “Jane”. He planned to form a settlement in Argenteuil County, Lower Canada, but while negotiations were proceeding, many of his followers moved to Glengarry, Upper Canada, where relatives and friends were already established. In 1804 Murlaggan’s cousin, Alan McMillan (Glenpean), secured land in the wilderness township of Finch, Stormont County, where with some forty MacMillans, Camerons and others he laid the foundation of its settlement. Murlaggan acquired land in Argenteuil in 1807-08 where he settled shortly thereafter. Glenpean died in 1823 and is buried here.
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Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

ST. ANDREW’S CHURCH 1812


**ST. ANDREW’S CHURCH 1812**
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Following the organization of a Pesbyterian congregation in 1787, a log church was erected here and replaced in 1806 by a stone structure. The present church was begun in 1812. Its bell was presented in 1806 by Sir Alexander Mackenzie, the great western explorer, and its communion service in 1820 by friends in Scotland. The first allotment of pews was made by lot on February 23, 1818, after special places had been reserved for the minister’s family, Mackenzie and other partners of the North West Company. Between 1787 and 1958 the congregation was served by only six ministers.
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Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

DUNCAN CAMERON


**DUNCAN CAMERON**
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Born in Scotland about 1764 he settled with his parents in Schenectady, New York. His father served with a Loyalist regiment during the American Revolution, following which the family moved to Glengarry. In 1784 Duncan entered the North West Company where, as manager of its Red River Department, he endeavoured to persuade Lord Selkirk’s settlers to abandon their lands. When Selkirk’s forces attacked Fort Gilbraltar in 1816, Cameron was captured and taken to England. Released and compensated for false arrest, he returned to Williamstown in 1820. He died in 1848 and is buried here.
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Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

THE NORTH WEST COMPANY


**THE NORTH WEST COMPANY**
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Some fifteen years after the British conquest of New France, the Montreal-based fur trade was revived, primarily by Scots. Competition among the individuals and small partnerships led to larger groupings, culminating in 1779 in the formation of the first “North West Company”. Reconstituted, 1783-4, the organization became a vital factor in the economy and exploration of this nation. Many of its partners and employees were drawn from among the Highland settlers of Glengarry County. Notable figures in the Company included: Benjamin and Joseph Frobisher, Simon McTavish, William McGillivray, Simon Fraser, Sir Alexander Mackenzie and David Thompson. Ruinous competition between the North West and Hudson’s Bay Companies finally compelled them to unite in 1821.
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Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

WILLIAMSTOWN FAIR


**WILLIAMSTOWN FAIR**
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Ontario’s oldest continually operated agricultural fair received its patent on March 29, 1808, from Francis Gore, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. It is probable that at first, the local farmers simply gathered on the village common or streets. However on June 25, 1814, Sir John Johnson, the founder of Williamstown, granted twelve acres for the express purpose of holding a fair and it has been held here annually ever since. Through the years, this fair, like many others in the province, has raised our standards of agriculture by providing a centre for the display of superior farm products and livestock.
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Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

FRASERFIELD


**FRASERFIELD**
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Begun about 1812 this house, one of the finest country residences of the day, was the home of the Honourable Alexander Fraser, Quartermaster of the Canadian Fencibles during the War of 1812. Fraser became Colonel of the 1st Regiment, Glengarry Militia, in 1822 and served under Sir John Colborne in Lower Canada during the Rebellion of 1837-38. Elected in 1828 to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, he was appointed in 1839 to the Legislative Council. From 1842-49 he was the first Warden of the Eastern District, now the counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry.
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QUIGLEY'S CORNER

**QUIGLEY’S CORNER**

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Brothers Owen and Patrick Quigley, born on a nearby farm of a family originally from Armagh, Ireland, established a hotel and a store at this crossroads in 1850. They also pursued interests in lumber and potash, and encouraged other tradesmen to locate here. Lochiel Township council meetings were long held in Quigley’s Hotel, with Owen Quigley serving for 20 years as township clerk. The brothers’ activities fostered the rise of the village as an economic and administrative centre, and it became known as Quigley’s Corner, and later as Lochiel. The village was the headquarters from 1907 to 1966 of the Glengarry Telephone Co. Ltd., which served some 600 area customers and numbered among the last independent telephone companies in Canada.

QUIGLEY’S CORNER

Les frères Owen et Patrick Quigley, nés sur une ferme du voisinage d’une famille originaire d’Armagh en Irlande, établirent un hôtel et un magasin général à ce carrefour en 1850. Ils eurent aussi des visées ambitieuses dans l’industrie forestière et celle de la potasse et ils encouragèrent d’autres fournisseurs à s’établir dans le coin. Les réunions du conseil du canton de Lochiel se tinrent longtemps à l’hôtel Quigley, là, où Owen Quigley fut secrétaire du canton pendant 20 ans. Les activités des frères favorisèrent le développement d’un centre économique et administratif connu sous le nom de Quigley’s Corner et plus tard Lochiel. Ce hameau fut le siège de la compagnie Glengarry Telephone Co. Ltd., qui desservait 600 clients de la région de 1907 à 1966 et qui fut l’une des dernières compagnies téléphoniques indépendantes au Canada.
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MUNRO AND McINTOSH


**MUNRO AND McINTOSH**
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Near this site, from 1880 to the 1920?s, stood the extensive factories of the Munro and McIntosh sleigh and carriage company, manufacturers of the celebrated “buggy from Glengarry” among many models of horse drawn sleigh, carriage and wagon. The firm’s principals were farm boys and cousins from the Apple Hill-Glen Roy area, Hugh Munro (1852-1939), a blacksmith turned salesman, and John D. McIntosh (1858 1914), a wheelwright and plant manager. The firm operated a pioneering production line that at its peak before the First World War produced more than 10,000 sleighs and carriages a year. Munro and McIntosh had a workforce of more than 200, and with other area businesses including the wood products factories of J.T. Schell, brought a period of growth and prosperity to Alexandria and surrounding Glengarry County.

MUNRO et McINTOSH

Dès 1880 jusqu’à 1920 près de ce site, furent érigées de vastes usines fabriquant des traîneaux, des voitures et des charettes. La compagnie Munro et McIntosh fut le fabriquant manufacturier du célèbre «boghei de Glengarry», un des maintes modèles de véhicules attelés. Les principaux agents de cette firme, fermiers de souche et cousins de la région d’Apple Hill-Glen Roy, Hugh Munro (1852-1939), le forgeron devint l’agent de ventes, et John D. McIntosh (1858-1914), le charron maintenant gérant de l’entreprise. Avant la première guerre mondiale, à son crux, cette firme pionnière de produc- tion en ligne fabriquait plus de 10,000 traîneaux et véhicules attelés par année. Leur main d’oeuvre comptait plus de 200 travailleurs. Munro et McIntosh ainsi que d’autres entreprises de la région, y compris les producteurs forestiers de J.T. Schell, amenèrent à cette région d’Alexandria et au comté environnant de Glengarry une période de développement et de prospérité.
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MACLEOD SETTLEMENT


**MACLEOD SETTLEMENT**
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In 1793 some forty families, including members of several clans, emigrated from Glenelg, Scotland, under the leadership of Alexander MacLeod and landed at St. John’s Island (now Prince Edward Island). The following year they came to Glengarry County and petitioned for land. In August, 1794, the majority were authorized to occupy 200 acres each in the vicinity of Kirkhill, which was for many years known as Glenelg. Alexander MacLeod, who was located on this property in 1794, was instrumental in founding one of the earliest Presbyterian parishes in Upper Canada here in Lochiel township. During the War of 1812 he served as a Captain in the 2nd Regiment of the Glengarry Militia and died March 4, 1850.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario
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SIR EDWARD ROBERT PEACOCK, G.C.V.O. 1871-1962


**SIR EDWARD ROBERT PEACOCK, G.C.V.O. 1871-1962**
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An internationally renowned financier, Peacock was born near here in the former Congregational Church manse and educated at Queen’s University in Kingston. He taught at Upper Canada College for seven years before joining the Dominion Securities Corporation, a prominent investment company, in 1902. Five years later he was transferred to London, England to manage the firm’s European office. Acclaimed for his exceptional financial abilities, Peacock played an increasingly important role in the international securities market and in industrial organization and reconstruction as a director of the Bank of England (1921-24, 1929-46), the head of Baring Brothers and Company (1929-54) and a director of the Commonwealth Development Finance Company (1953-59). He also became a trusted adviser to the Royal Family and was knighted for his services in 1934.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communication
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THE COLLEGE OF IONA

**THE COLLEGE OF IONA**
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Established by the Reverend Alexander Macdonell, father of Roman Catholic education in Upper Canada and later Bishop of Kingston, the College of Iona was opened in 1826 in a log building near this site. The central portion of the nearby stone structure, erected by Macdonell in 1808 as the presbytery for the parish, served as a residence for teachers and students. Much of the cost of construction and of the operational expenses of the school were borne by Macdonell. In addition to being the first seminary in Upper Canada, the school offered a general academic education preparing boys for secular vocations. After about ten years its functions were taken over by Regiopolis College in Kingston.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation
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THE MARTINTOWN GRIST MILL

**THE MARTINTOWN GRIST MILL**

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This mill was built in 1846 to replace part of a milling complex developed by Malcolm McMartin early in the century. Like similar operations throughout the province, the McMartin mills provided essential local services in an era of poor transportation. They served area residents by sawing timber, carding wool, fulling cloth and grinding grain. The mills and their associated tavern and store attracted tradesmen and residents, creating the village of Martintown. Malcolm McMartin’s son Alexander, builder of this mill, became an influential local businessman, militia leader and politician. His grist mill survived in a market increasingly dominated by large competitors until it finally ceased operations in 1951.

 

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation
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LOCH GARRY

**LOCH GARRY**

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A beauty spot and natural oasis, Loch Garry is the only lake in Kenyon Township, and at about four kilometres long, the only substantial body of water east of the Rideau Valley. A settlement grew at its western end in the early 19th century, eventually including a tannery, potash plant and cheese factory. A post office operated from 1860 to 1898, when Loch Garry village declined with the growth of the Canadian Pacific Railway stop at nearby Apple Hill. A cottage community developed at the site in the 1940s.

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GLENGARRY CAIRN

**GLENGARRY CAIRN**

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This cairn was erected under the supervision of Lieut-Col. Lewis Carmichael of the Imperial Army, then stationed in this district on particular service, by the Highland Militia of Glengarry which had aided in the suppression of the Canadian Rebellion of 1837-38, to commemorate the services of that distinguished soldier Sir John Colborne, who was declared by the historian Napier to have been, ‘A man of singular talent for war’ and who commanded her majesty’s forces in Canada at that critical period. He had previously served with conspicuous merit throughout the Peninsular War and elsewhere and had greatly distinguished himself at Waterloo when in command of the 52nd regiment. He was Lieut. Governor of Upper Canada from November 1828 to January 1836, Governor General of Canada in 1839, and afterwards became Field Marshall Lord Seaton G.C.B. The cairn was repaired and this tablet erected in 1905.
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INDIAN LANDS

**INDIAN LANDS**

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A Native presence in the St. Lawrence valley dates back at least 10,000 years, with Iroquoian settlements established by the early 14th century. Indian Lands, or the Nutfield Tract, is a strip of land two miles wide running north from the St. Lawrence along the west side Charlottenburgh and Kenyon townships. It was granted to the Mohawks of nearby Akwesasne in 1784, the remnant of a much larger land claim, but was soon settled by European immigrants who nominally at least paid rent to the Mohawks. In the 1850s, the land was surrendered by the Mohawks and the lots sold to their occupants.
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BETHUNE-THOMPSON HOUSE

**BETHUNE-THOMPSON HOUSE**

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Built by Loyalist settler Peter Ferguson in 1784, the original log cabin on this site is one of the oldest surviving buildings in Ontario. The cabin walls were constructed using a French Canadian technique called poteaux sur sole where vertically placed, squared logs were held together by horizontal plates located along the top and bottom. The larger home adjoining it was built in 1804 by Reverend John Bethune (1751-1815), the first Presbyterian minister in Upper Canada. This home also incorporated a French Canadian construction technique, colombage pierroté, which used a timber frame filled with masonry rubble. The fireplace overmantle installed by Bethune is one of few remaining in the province. In 1815 David Thompson (1770-1857) acquired the house and lived here until about 1836. Thompson was an explorer and cartographer who surveyed much of what is now western Canada and mapped out the Canada-United States border. The house presents a unique architectural and historical record of early Ontario.
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ESTABLISHING THE BORDER

**ESTABLISHING THE BORDER**

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This monument is one of about fifty delineating the land border between the provinces of Québec and Ontario. The line was established in 1791 by the British Constitutional Act, based on the extent of lands granted as seigneuries during the earlier French colonial period. The late 18th century was a time of increasing British immigration to Canada, and the Act divided the colony into the long-established and mostly French-speaking Lower Canada, now Québec, and the fast-growing, mostly English-speaking Upper Canada, now Ontario. Several surveys of the border were done in the first half of the 19th century, including one by the celebrated cartographer David Thompson of nearby Williamstown, Ontario. It was not until 1860 that the border was marked by stone monuments. These were renovated or replaced in a joint Québec-Ontario project in 2011.

Établir La Fontière

Ce monument est l’un des quelque cinquante qui délimitent la frontière terrestre entre les provinces de Québec et d’Ontario. L’Acte constitutionnel de 1791 du Parlement britannique établit la frontière en fonction de l’étendue des concessions de terre, les seigneuries de l’époque de l’ancienne colonisation française. Avec l’accroissement de l’immigration britannique au Canada à la fin du 18e siècle, l’Acte divisa la colonie en deux provinces: le Bas-Canada, reconnu depuis longtemps et surtout francophone, maintenant le Québec, et le Haut-Canada, en pleine croissance et surtout anglophone, maintenant l’Ontario. Au début du 19e siècle, on effectua plusieurs levés topographiques, dont un realisé par le célèbre cartographe David Thompson de Williamstown tout près, en Ontario. Mais, ce n’est qu’en 1860 qu’on marqua la frontière de monuments de pierre. En 2011, un projet collectif Québec-Ontario effectua la rénovation ou le remplacement de ces monuments.
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